American Econmic History Assignment


Free or Equal Questions

While watching Free or Equal, complete the following statements for questions 1-9. Use the precise language from the video. Question 10 asks you to analyze a proposal and provide your unique perspective.   You do not need to use the same format as shown below (with boxes). Use a format which works best for you.

  1. Professor Milton Friedman’s research led him to believe in the power of __________ and ______________.

Answer #1       free markets

Answer #2       economic freedom

  1. If the government gives everybody the same freedom to work . . . some will do better than others. The result will be ________________, but not _______________.

Answer #1.     Equality of opportunity

Answer #2.     The equality of outcome

  1. The free market enables people to go into any industry they want; to trade with whomever they want; to buy in the cheapest market around the world; to sell in the dearest market around the world. But most important of all, if they fail, ______________. If they succeed, _______________.

Answer #1.       They bear the cost

Answer #2.       They get the benefits

  1. In the example of the lead pencil, what conclusion did Professor Friedman reach in the context of “invisible hands?”

Conclusion     completion to foster harmony and peace among the peoples of the world

  1. Economists call the constant renewal of the economy _______________. If we want to increase our wealth and opportunities, we have to stop doing old things in __________ and start doing innovative things in ___________. In other words, we have to be __________.

Answer #1       creative destruction

Answer #2.     Old ways

Answer #3.     Better ways

Answer #4.     creative

  1. An example of “creative destruction” was used in the video. What technology was created? What was destroyed? Why was this new technology so important?

Created            cell phones

Destroyed      land lines

Why important.     Gave individuals power and reduced poverty

  1. The idea that the economic race should be so arranged that everybody ends at the finish line at the same time rather than everyone starts at the beginning line at the same time. This concept raises a very serious problem for freedom. It is clearly in conflict with it, since it requires that the freedom of some be ________ in order to provide the _________________________.

Answer #1.     restricted

Answer #2      greater benefits to others

  1. In the last 100 years with relatively free markets, we have created ____________ than in the __________ years before.

Answer #1.     More wealth

Answer #2.       100,000

  1. As Milton Friedman said, “The society that puts equality before freedom will _________________________. The society that puts freedom before equality will end up with a __________________________________.”

Answer #1.     End up with neither

Answer #2.      Great measure of both

  1. Professor Friedman compares the concept of “equality of opportunity” to a race where everyone begins at the starting line at the same time. In contrast, “equality of outcome” guarantees that everyone finishes at the same time. Today, “equality of outcome” is referred to as “fair shares for all.” If we applied the “fair shares for all” concept in this class, all students would receive an average grade of “C.” This would be accomplished by taking points away from students earning A’s and B’s to give to students earning D’s and E’s. Distributing points equally would result in “fair grades for all.”  Would you approve of this method in calculating your final grade? Why or why not?    How would this differ from “fair shares for all” economically? For example, what’s the difference between a successful student being required to give up some of his/her hard-earned grade and a successful person being expected to give more of his/her hard-earned income? If you support “redistribution of income and wealth,” shouldn’t you also be willing to redistribute academic grades? After all, many of your fellow students may not have had the advantages in education and upbringing that you’ve had.  Address the above questions in your own words, in a minimum of 3 paragraphs.

One thing I have learned from my own education and that of my children is that equality of education does not work and never will. I grew up in a time where we competed constantly throughout elementary school. Spelling bees, math flash cards, creative writing, everything we did was a competition in the classroom. As a result I tried to be the winner. Sometimes I succeeded in winning and sometimes I failed. But it taught me to come prepared every day. This helped me to succeed in Jr high and High school also. Some students never even tried. Personally I don’t understand that but it happens all the time. There are just some people in the world who for whatever reasons just don’t want to try. And in my time they could fail if that was their choice. Some people failed even when they tried their best. I don’t know personally if they later succeeded at some kind of work but I tend to think they would because they kept trying.

Conversely, my children went to elementary school in a time when they wanted everyone to succeed. My children had a great time in elementary. If you tried you were a success. There was no competition in the classroom only individual successes. My children did alright but not great. They had no incentive to be the best only to try. When they got to Jr. High and then High school they were in the middle of most of their classes. When I pushed them to do better they out did most everyone in the class but it was hard to push when they had learned that mediocre was ok. And all of my children went out into the real world not understanding that they would have to compete for jobs. They all went to college later, mid twenties, after learning that they needed a better education to truly succeed in the marketplace.

So to answer the question here. No I would not want everyone to get an equal grade in the class. Competition brings everyone’s grade up. I believe the majority of students in this class will get a B or higher. So a C for everyone would not be what we could have achieved on our own. And if I worked harder than someone else I achieved more therefore my reward is greater.

“Fair shares for all” is a really bad idea. We are living it right now with Obama care. Before it we had insurance that was perfect for our family. Now we are being forced to choose another health plan and we have essentially been forced to spend more than we can afford because everyone can receive health care. The government is giving out subsidies that we aren’t eligible for. The insurance companies have raised their rates so they can get more of the government money but as a consequence we can’t afford the rates because we can’t get the government help. We are in that lovely middle ground where we also can’t afford the premiums. “Fair shares for all” might seem fair but it isn’t. The only fair thing is a free market. Free from government interference and freedom to fail. We are all being forced to have high levels of health care but we have to give up other commodities that we thought were more important for us in order to get the forced insurance. And I know we are not alone in this. We have friends and relatives who have the same problem. Even some who can get the subsidy still can’t afford the premiums. I don’t blame the insurance companies. Who wouldn’t want free money. But for the citizens of this country who are hard working and still can’t get insurance anymore this “fair shares for all” is not a good plan.

Reflective Writing

Compose 2-3 paragraphs explaining how completing this assignment helped you achieve at least two (2) of the SLCC Learning Outcomes:

Learning Outcome #1 (Paragraph #1)

As a 56 year old taking this course I don’t feel like the learning outcomes required for gen ed classes really work for me. I have been doing all of them for well over 40 years. But I have other learning outcomes that I feel these classes have given me. I have been pushed to accept different points of view. I have realized that I live in a global marketplace and therefore I need to learn more about my world. This class has made me more civically engaged in a world economy. I appreciate the lessons of our past and realize that we have a lot still to achieve if we as a people in America want to remain at the top.

Learning Outcome #2 (Paragraph #2)

I really love classes who use discussion among students as part of the curriculum. It gives me a chance to hear other opinions and carry on civil, professional discourse. I am very opinionated and feel like my way is the best way. Hearing others disagree with me in a civil way gives me the opportunity to learn to be more tactful in disagreeing. This in turn will help me work better with others even though I don’t plan on entering the workforce ever again.


Reflections on Flexibilty Class


My goals in this class were to improve my range of motion in my hips, shoulders, knees and neck. I also was trying to improve my hydration level and lose more weight. I feel likes some of these areas have improved. Some however, not so much. I have been especially disappointed in the weight gain during the semester. I can attribute some of the gain to the steroids I was taking during some of the semester. I can also hope that some of it is muscle rather than fat. Not as much as I gained though.

My hydration continues to improve and I feel like I am turning it into a lifetime change which I am excited about. Remembering to drink fluids all day long when I get busy is a challenge but carrying my water bottle with me has made a difference. When I finish it off and fill it again in one day I feel really good about myself.

As I stated in my goals at the beginning of the class avoiding surgery on my knee is of primary concern to me. I really feel like that goal has far exceeded my expectation going in to the class. My knee has been hurting every day for years. Thanks to this class it has stopped hurting. I hardly ever notice it any more. I feel like my leg strength and flexibility has improved tremendously even though the flex tests don’t really show that improvement.

My shoulder however is another story. It has been in pain from the moment I started the class and because of my doctor’s instructions I haven’t seen any improvement. The good news is the pills I am on now give me an opportunity to work on it without pain for short amounts of time and I am confident that it will eventually improve too.

I really loved the class. That is why I have decided to audit it in the fall. Having a class during the week that gets students way from their desk and thinking about movement is great. I especially liked the variety of options. I liked that when there were levels of stretch you showed us how to make the stretch harder or easier.

Some of the things I noticed with this class was their inability to differentiate between strength training and flexibility. I think there could be more explanations about whether or not each individual movement is flexing/stretching muscles or strengthening them. I know it isn’t a classroom situation but somehow helping them see the difference I think needs to be incorporated into each day. Even helping the students to understand what aerobic exercise/warm up is and how important it is for improving flexibility I think was lost on this class.

With the teaching opportunity at the end I think if there was a way for you to review each groups plan before they presented so there would be less confusion about whether or not they were incorporating enough flex might be helpful.

Overall I had a great experience and thought the class was exceptional for all levels of flexibility.

Lifelong wellness reflective paper


Reflection Paper

This class has been a lot of fun. I enjoyed studying varying topics that relate to my continued health. I think the most interesting thing I learned was that my many years of experience have been years spent living and understanding the majority of the things we have discussed in this class. There were specific terms that I didn’t know or had forgotten but the principles of living well I have understood if not actually done.

I appreciated having to track my exercise. It didn’t teach me anything new but it was nice to have a chart. I was very surprised at some of the eating habits I had but not really anything shocking just more of a “oh yeah I ought to be more concerned about that” realization. My salt intake is annoying. I don’t salt anything and I like my foods to taste like what they are so I really don’t use salt at all and yet every day my salt intake was way over what it should be. I have started drinking a lot more water and I am glad of that change in my life because of this class.

The fitness appraisals were great. I had begun to think that I had become very inflexible as I had aged. It was a pleasant surprise to find that I still had some flexibility. Actually a lot more than I thought. It made me want to improve my flexibility so I do flexibility exercises as part of my regular exercise now.

Understanding more about psychological disorders made me more aware of the fact that all of us have imperfect psychy’s. I am more careful to not be frustrated by others problems, especially those in my family with mental problems.

The drug, alcohol, smoking, STD’s and cancer chapters were very long, hard and full of definitions that I felt like I didn’t need. Basic knowledge of these topics is important but in my lifetime I have never really needed to know any of the stuff we were expected to remember. If you have a promiscuous, riotous or unaware lifestyle you might need to know the things that could happen to you but even then there was just too much information that no one remembers ten minutes after the test. I will never have problems with any of these topics so for me it was a lot of work for information I will never need.

I liked the opportunity to look at my emergency preparedness and see if there was something I could improve. But again my years of life have made me already prepared so I don’t see a lot of change occurring because of this class. Still I think for the younger class members it was a good exercise.

I appreciated the immunity and infection chapter. I think it is a good idea to be aware of how we get germs. It made me want to keep up on the many vaccines that the medical profession finds to keep us healthy so that I can get the ones I should have.

I really enjoyed the aging interview. I thought it was a lot of fun to talk to someone older than me and hear what his life is like. I hope that I will continue to have a sense of humor about my aging like he has about his.

The most fun I had in the class was doing the true colors activities. It was really neat to see how well I fit into a color and even how the secondary color applied to my personality. It has made me more aware of the people around me and how I relate to them. It gives me a different layer of understanding that helps with communication.

I love learning and appreciate the fact that at my age I am doing it just because I can. I really loved this class and was glad I took it.

Geology of the Wasatch Range – Mt. Olympus to Red Butte


In the Wasatch Range, which appears to be overlooked by the scientific community due to the lack of studies, the geology is varied and extensive. This paper will attempt to explain the geologic processes that took place between Red Butte Canyon and Mt. Olympus. This essay will describe the sediments, mountain building events, and surface water in the canyons. With a short discussion on the human history.

The oldest formations are from early Paleozoic time and have a shallow deposition (Hintze, 2005). Looking at the Wasatch like a deck of cards fanned out on a table the oldest layers are to the south and each more recent layer moves you farther north.

The next layers visible in the rock record are from the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian period and contain mostly limestone from a shallow water period in Utah history. Weber quartzite is the predominate sandstone on the south and at the mouth of the canyon also on the north face of Mt. Olympus. (Case, 2005) Mt. Olympus has large deposits of limestone which have been weathered and eroded to the extent that there is one of the deepest caves in North America. It is extremely narrow and dangerous so few have been allowed inside.

The periods between Devonian and Mississippian and Permian and Triassic are not seen in this area of the Wasatch between Red Butte and Mt. Olympus. There is a 5million year unconformity (Parry, 2005). The Triassic has the Woodside shale, Thaynes, and Ankareh limestone layers throughout all the canyons. The Woodside shale is a dark red to purple and can be found easily. The limestone layers were the result of the ocean being west of or on top of Utah. During the Triassic period the ocean and later the inland sea fluctuated a great deal and deposited very thick layers of marine life. They are visible at the entrance to Parleys canyon on both sides of the road. The Thaynes is a visible band that traverses along the north side of Millcreek canyon from its mouth and is the most prominent feature on the north side and continues all the way into Park City. The Thaynes formation is also at the base of Spring Creek between Parley’s and Emigration. (Hintze, 2005)

Near the mouth of Parley’s Canyon there is a weather resistant formation of quartz sandstone known as the Gartra member. It is clearly seen as it traverses in an easterly direction through the Ankareh formation on the south side. It is a Triassic bed deposited at the same time as the Chinle formation in southern Utah. (Hintze, 2005) The Triassic had the largest sediment layers, 4100ft., deposited in these canyons due to the shallow sea environment (Parry, 2005).

During the Jurassic period the1300ft. thick Nugget sandstone was deposited. This layer is the result of wind swept sand dunes that covered all of Utah. It is best seen in Red Butte but there is also a band just above the Triassic limestone in the Spring Creek anticline and on Parley’s north side near its mouth (Hintze, 2005). Another formation from the Jurassic is the Twin Creek limestone. In the Wasatch it is found on the north side of Parley’s canyon. This is the top layer and continues into Emigration Canyon (Hintze, 2005).

Finally the last bit of deposition that occurred before the mountain building began was a conglomerate layer deposited during the Cretaceous period. This formation is known as the Kelvin and it can be seen in the syncline on the back side of Emigration Canyon where Emigration and Parley’s meet. (Parry, 2005)

Grandeur peak is a great example of the folding that has taken place in the formation of the Wasatch Mountains. The limestone beds that make up the Thaynes formation are visibly warped when viewed from the Salt Lake Valley. They were crushed and fractured along with folding and can be found in slides all along the north side of Millcreek. These formations contain Triassic cephalopods which help to date them. This peak has a wide range of formations that have been identified. See the map for all of them. (Hintze, 2005)

During the Devonian time, there was a small mountain building event that lifted part of the Salt Lake area. The mountains in the Wasatch Range that have the rock story from this period are farther to the north. It was a small uplift and the first to rise above the shallow seas that had covered the area off and on for millions of years. (Hintze, 2005)

The Wasatch Mountains were created in short spurts of uplift, maybe 15 to 20 feet, along the Wasatch fault. This occurred many times over a number of millennia. It is still rising but not like before. It rises about 0.4mm a year. There are no foothills on the west face. The west face of each mount is a triangle shape and steep sloped. The sediments that have eroded from the Wasatch sit in the valley and if those sediments were removed the Wasatch would be a wall 5 miles high. (Hamblin, 2004)

The limestone, siltstone and mudstone found in the Wasatch Range were deposited approximately 60 miles west of their current location. After these sediments were deposited there were mountain building events that took place to the west of Utah. The first one was during the Permian period. The Park City formation, Woodside shale and Thaynes formations were all part of this event that pushed the continental shelf east and thickened the crust in what would become Utah (Parry, 2005).

The next mountain building events that occurred were during the Mesozoic after marine sediments were deposited in Nevada and western Utah. These layers consisted of limestone and shale sandstone. The mountain building off the western edge of the continent again forced these sediments east (Parry, 2005).

Mountain building took place during the Jurassic to Cretaceous period and was the beginning of the fault block ranges we see today. The thrust belt pushed eastward and caused a foredeep basin to occur in most of Utah. (Parry,2005). This basin became an inland sea some of the time and dry some of the time. It accumulated more than 10,000ft of sediment. The Twin Creek limestone comes from this sedimentation. The Nugget sandstone was also deposited here but it was dry, sandy and wind swept during its formation. These layers can be seen clearly in Parley’s canyon (Hintze, 2005).

The Sevier Orogeny occurred during the Cretaceous. It is the first mountain building event to occur within Utah’s borders. When it rose it was the beginning of the Wasatch as we know it today (Parry, 2005).

When the basin and range began to form in the tertiary period the crust from the west coast had been shoved inland as much as 85 miles. The basin and range, caused by the collapse of the thickened crust, moved the crust westward 155 miles. This thinning of the crust caused the fault blocking to occur. The Wasatch today is due to normal faulting mostly along the Wasatch fault. (Chronic, 2010)

Weathering in the canyons has exposed many of the older features from previous mountain building events. (Parry, 2005) As the mountains rose the exposure to water, wind and rain changed what was visible. The canyons were cut by erosion from streams high on their slopes to the east. As this weathering and erosion continues the deeper sedimentary layers are exposed in the canyons of the Wasatch.

During the last ice age each of the canyons held glaciers. The glaciers in these canyons only reached as far west as the upper end of each canyon so the bowl shapes and moraine only reach part way into each canyon. The majority of canyon making has occurred due to streams cutting into the sedimentary layers which erode easily. The sediment is carried to the mouth of the canyons and deposited as alluvium (Chronic, 2010).

Lake Bonneville in the Salt Lake valley was at the highest level about 16,000 years ago. This high point is sporadically visible along the Wasatch. It is a clear shelf of sediment that makes a flat place along the steep slopes of the Wasatch Range. The Lake Bonneville shoreline is visible on Grandeur at the 5200ft level. This bench has very little vegetation due to its sandy composition which makes the shoreline visible here. (Hintze, 2005)

Humans have altered the canyons in different ways. Millcreek canyon was used for logging in the recent past and as a site for a lime kiln due to the abundance of limestone. Today Millcreek canyon has a fee station. The money collected is used for canyon improvements. This canyon is popular for hiking, mountain biking, horseback riding and picnics. (Verdant, 1998) Parley’s canyon is the highway from the Salt Lake valley to points east. The area between Parley’s and Emigration has two reservoirs that supply potable water to Salt Lake. Emigration canyon is filling with homes. Red Butte canyon has a reservoir for potable water but is the least disturbed of the canyons in Salt Lake. Red Butte can only be accessed by foot.

Looking at this section of the Wasatch as a whole unit makes it clear that the geology here is just as varied and interesting as the geology of southern Utah. Things were happening in the Wasatch all through the geologic history we have of North America. Many thousands of feet of sediment were deposited. Mountain building events occurred. Streams have eroded the canyons exposing many of the formations. Glaciers have contributed to the shape of the canyons. Lake Bonneville left a visible mark. All of which make the Wasatch a very exciting geologic place to study.

Life Is Tough; Get Over It


Laurie Healey

Professor Stephen Williams

Film 1070

October 21, 2014

Life Is Tough; Get Over It

My thesis for this paper will use three films from class to show how filmmakers tell viewers that life is tough but some people get over it and move forward with their lives. The movies I intend to use to illustrate this point are Temple Grandin, Philomena and The Diving Bell and The Butterfly.

Each of these films have a single individual that the story is about. They each have an individual struggle that makes their particular story noteworthy.

In Temple Grandin, for the rest of this paper known as TG, we are faced with a young woman with autism. In Philomena, for the rest of this paper known as P, we meet a much older woman who is trying to find her son who was taken from her in her teens. And in The Diving Bell and The Butterfly, for the rest of this paper known as DBB, we meet a man in his prime struggling with a life threatening disorder.

TG is a movie full of symbolism and metaphors to help the viewer try to understand how Temple thinks. We are visually taken into the mind of Temple and shown from her perspective what life is like. She was born with autism. A very complicated brain disorder that impairs socialization and learning. The film makers chose to use static visual images at key points in the early part of the film to help the viewer understand Temple’s mind. A shot of flames when she steps off the plane in Texas. A flash of geometric problems when she encounters the gate at the ranch. Her aunt and uncle sitting on the roof with a rooster at dawn. The use of door images whenever a new life event occurs.

As the movie progresses the static images begin to have motion, especially when she is studying the cows and their behavior. We see her mind moving the cows through a different set-up that she is inventing in her mind while she watches them. We begin to understand Temple and how she sees the world around her. These visual helps lead the viewer to have empathy for Temple and her situation.

Temple is a person with a severe handicap. There are many others in the world with the same difficulty. Because of her mother and her own motivation Temple rises above her difficulty and excels at life. We see this through the use of flashbacks from her early education. Her mother never gives in to the easy way. She finds her a school where she can learn and grow.

There are many opportunities for Temple to quit trying. But she always has someone or something to give her encouragement to keep going. In this way I feel she understands that life is tough but successful people get over it. She learned that a door is just a new chapter in life not a wall to keep you out.

P is a movie full of humor, flashbacks and narrative to try to convey the life Philomena has had without her son and why she is compelled to find him. The filmmakers use the reporter as a way for Philomena to tell her story to us. The reporter has a complicated life of his own and we watch both of them work together to find answers to their own individual problems. In the flashbacks we see life choices that lead Philomena to the place she is now. The director makes the past very harsh with black and white images and jerky, hand-held footage along with stark images whenever we see the nunnery. In Philomena’s mind the past was hard, unforgiving and cruel. We see her struggle by watching another girl give birth. We see her alone in cold walled rooms. The outside shots are of bleak weather. Her flashbacks are not pleasant, except when she is spending time with her son. Those moments are infused with warmth and laughter.

As we learn about her son and his life we are given glimpses of what seems to be a happy, successful life but one that is not. We are shown images of him with very successful people in the political world in America. But his life was a secret because he was homosexual in a republican world that, according to the film, doesn’t accept homosexuals.

We see his life through 8mm film, which gives the story authenticity. We see him in happy childhood and grown-up love with his partner. We see him frail as he is dying. We also see Philomena’s reaction to these events. Her life has been a good one. She married and had children but that is a lie also because she had this secret need to find her son. She tried for 50 years to find him.

We are taught about the nunnery through investigation by the reporter. Again everything filmed at this place is bleak, stark and secretive looking. It seems to always be winter whenever the filmmakers go there. Lots of shadows and hidden places. Through this dramatic scene setting we understand that Philomena had a hard life of repression and guilt.

The conclusion of the film is not what you expect. After building up the audience to be very angry with the nuns Philomena forgives them. We come to find out that for her they were just part of her life story and she had moved on. She didn’t need to feel anger or animosity toward them. For her, life was hard but she turned it around and lived contented despite it.

DBB is a very subjective movie that uses a camera that gives us the perspective of Jean Do from the moment he awakens from a comma and finds he has locked-in syndrome. We see everything as if we are Jean Do. He cannot move his head so the only thing we see is whatever is in his line of sight. This gives a very scary, limited view and we don’t know what is going on. We are also given more of his perspective by being privy to his thoughts. He is carrying on a conversation with the doctors and nurses but they have no idea what he is thinking.

Jean Do has a very interesting sense of humor and we see his past as he is thinking about things through flashbacks. He is very self absorbed and this comes out through his memories. As the movie progresses Jean Do becomes more accustomed to his predicament and as he does the world opens up for us as well. Soon we are seeing more space around him and eventually we are allowed to actually see him.

Jean Do has a life that no one would want. He can do nothing except blink one eye. He goes through all the stages of anger. At first he just wants to die but as the nurses work with him he learns to adjust and accept his plight. We are given glimpses of his coping skills with camera angles and flashbacks and eventually his imagination. Each of these images are in full color and complete so we know they come from his mind not his reality.

Jean Do decides to write a book about his experience so others can understand what he thinks and feels. This is am very laborious process. As he begins to enjoy it we see more and more of his past and eventually how he got where he is. The movie is not linear and it really helps the viewer to feel as though we are right inside his mind.

It is interesting to me how each of these movies want us to understand the mental state of the protagonist and yet each uses very different techniques to give you that perspective. All three were extremely effective in telling us that for each of these individuals life was hard but they overcame and moved forward.

I was especially moved by the fact that as I watched each one I felt their individual frustrations and anger at their situation and yet I didn’t necessarily come to a satisfied place by the end. My emotions were involved but I could still come to my own conclusions and I felt like I would not have done as well as they did. Which made their courage in the face of trial that much more poignant. The cinematography for each was unique and definitely told their story in a great way.